Analysis on the current situation of export packag

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Analysis on the current situation of export packaging technology of tropical fruits in Thailand

Thailand is one of the major producers of tropical fruits, with no less than 35 varieties, some of which are major fruits, such as bananas, durian, longan, litchi, mango, mangosteen, papaya, pineapple, grapefruit and rambutan... It is well known not only in tropical areas, but also in non tropical areas

in recent ten years, fresh fruits have suffered a lot of losses due to bumping, extrusion and decay after harvest, accounting for about 15 ~ 20% of the total. These losses are mainly due to incorrect handling methods, improper packaging, insufficient inhibition of pests and microorganisms, the perishable characteristics of fruits, and the tropical climate that leads to the rapid decay of fruits

at present, the fruit loss caused by mechanical collision and damage in the sending process has been controlled, mainly due to the use of appropriate packaging methods. This paper shows the work done by Thailand packaging technology center in developing the transportation and packaging technology of exported fruits in the country, and its technology has been widely adopted by enterprises. Advanced packaging provides sufficient means of protection, and in terms of standards, it also conforms to the trend of the international market. This paper also summarizes the current regional transportation packaging technology

I. progress of export packaging technology in Thailand

over the past two decades, the Thai government has recognized the importance of packaging in promoting exports. In the past, traditional bamboo baskets, plastic boxes and boxes made of wood similar to rubber were mainly used for packaging. These packages are not competitive in terms of appearance, ease of handling and use, as well as strength characteristics in the field where the world market stress changes in a sinusoidal waveform with time

Thailand has always taken close markets such as Hong Kong, Singapore and Malaysia as its main export markets. In addition, other countries on the Asian continent, such as Japan, Brunei and some Middle East countries, also showed potential demand for Thai fruits. The income level of these countries is as high as that of other reinforcement materials, and what they need is selected high-quality products. Other new markets also include some countries in North America and Europe, which have high market grade and dominate international trade. Therefore, it is difficult to succeed in export trade without adopting high-quality protective packaging methods

for this reason, the Thai Packaging Technology Center was appointed to carry out research and development work in the packaging of fresh fruits for export. The center is a government unit established under the Thai Academy of science and technology and the Ministry of science, technology and environment. The main responsibility of the center is to improve packaging standards to improve the quality of Thai products in the domestic and international markets. Based on such a principle, that is, high-quality packaging must meet the market requirements and ensure that the fruit remains intact during transportation. The center has been carrying out the work of changing the packaging of imported and exported fresh fruits in an orderly manner. Firstly, the information about market demand and fruit characteristics is collected as a reference for packaging design; Secondly, the newly designed demonstration packaging is tested in the laboratory before the transportation experiment; The third important step is pattern design; After that, a manual on the new design was put forward - finally, this new packaging was promoted and adopted

1. demonstration design:

the demonstration design of a package includes structural design, and preventing mechanical damage is a basic requirement of structural design. Generally, structural design is considered to be the selection of appropriate packaging materials, while in terms of strength and effective use space for storage and transportation, it is the design of packaging category and size. Three aspects should be considered in the structural design: (1) the use of materials and the type of packaging (2) the size of packaging (3) the mechanical strength of packaging

(1) material use and packaging category

in international trade, the transportation packaging of most goods is rectangular rigid packaging. Its manufacturing materials are corrugated board, Solid Fiberboard, wood and plastic, of which wood includes plywood, sawdust board and hard fiberboard, and plastic includes thermosetting plastic and foaming plastic

among many kinds of packaging materials, corrugated cardboard is selected for demonstration design, because it is easy to find in Thailand. Another advantage is that it can easily print charming patterns on the surface, it is small in weight, it is very easy to make into various types and specifications, and it can be reused. However, in wet conditions, corrugated board is also easy to lose its strength. Therefore, the water absorption performance of the materials used should not exceed 150/m2 (preferably not less than 100 g/m2). The most common types of corrugated cardboard packaging boxes for fresh fruits exported from Thailand are:

a single piece box. According to the international carton standard, its codes are 0201 and 0209, and code 0201 is a recognized regular seamed container, also known as RSC

b. fully retractable box. Code 0320, also known as fths box

test the materials to ensure that the products are produced according to the expected results. C. die cutting box, usually double piece. When making, each component can be installed only by folding. The most commonly used codes are 0422 and 04231

usually, two-piece boxes are more used because they are easy to place items

(2) package size

as a competitive package, its size and shape should adapt to the storage and transportation mode, meet the requirements of customers, and be easy to stack. Therefore, the size of most packing cases is 120 × 100 cm international standard container size. Based on this, the standard packaging box has four sizes representing different outline sizes:

60 × 40 cm

50 × 30 cm

40 × 30 cm

50 × 40 cm

all the basic dimensions of up to four transport packages can be fully suitable for a 120 × 100 cm container. Recently, the OECD is recommending three basic sizes (1, 2, 3) instead of 50 × 40 cm transport packaging box, because the size of the container can not be effectively used in European countries (European countries generally use 120 × 80 cm container

the height of the packing box is not standardized, but it should vary with the vulnerability of the items and the weight of the packing box. The gross weight should not exceed 20 citizens to facilitate manual handling. For small-size or easily damaged items, the gross weight should not exceed 5 kg

we recommend the transportation package sizes mentioned above. These sizes are designed based on the container size standards commonly used in inland transportation and maritime transportation, so they are widely used. However, there is another important way, that is by air. The cost of air transportation is usually high. Therefore, when air transportation is carried out to importing countries that do not limit the standard size, the packaging size that can maximize the space in the air transportation container is often used. These sizes are not recommended values, such as 45 × 35cm, such as 8 × 45 cm box

(3) mechanical strength of the packing box

because the packing box is used to protect items from mechanical damage, the packing box must maintain its strength throughout the sales process. The main performance of article packaging lies in its stacking strength. The primary consideration affecting the required stacking strength is the height of the packing box to be stacked. The stacking height of containers transported by trucks, roads and ships is about 2.1 ~ 2.2 meters, while that of air containers is about 1.6 meters, and the stacking height in warehouses is about 2.5 ~ 8 meters. For corrugated cardboard boxes, high humidity is also a key factor affecting the stacking strength. The ventilation area of corrugated cardboard boxes is another factor affecting the stacking strength. Generally, the ventilation area of corrugated cardboard boxes is between 0 and 6%. Other requirements for strength performance are earthquake resistance and falling performance. In addition, moisture resistance is also an important performance for corrugated cardboard packaging boxes

2. performance test of packaging box

a basic work of 131 improved packaging of Shandong new material investment project is to determine its performance through laboratory scale simulation test. When testing in the laboratory, the number of samples is small, so the process is fast, and the damage can be observed in time; In addition, the laboratory test results are data results, rather than qualitative results, which can be used to propose packaging specifications. And the quality of various packages can also be compared under the same test conditions

international organizations such as international organization for Standardization ISO, American Society for testing and Materials ASTM, American Bureau of standards BS and afvor have put forward many standard methods for performance testing. According to these standards, the most common tests include extrusion test, drop test and vibration test

before putting forward the performance specification, the newly designed packing box should be actually shipped and inspected to ensure the correctness of the laboratory test results. At this stage, the work cost is high, and it is necessary to plan carefully, cooperate closely with exporters, and listen to the suggestions of importers

3. Pattern design

the main function of pattern design is to transmit information through labels and symbols on the packaging box, point out the correct storage and transportation methods, and clarify the types of goods and the enterprises responsible for production and sales. Generally, this information includes at least the following contents: type, quality grade, net weight and quantity, origin, destination and processing conditions. The pattern design should also be able to provide the appearance of the imported packaging box, while the pattern design of most transportation packaging boxes is printed in only two colors for economic reasons

4. The last content of promoting the use of

to improve packaging is to introduce the new packaging box to all parties concerned, especially to exporters, so that it can be widely used. Publicity and promotion can be carried out through mass media, distribution of publicity materials, organization of seminars, etc. Of course, this requires cooperation with packing box users

II. Packaging of domestic fruits

1. Transportation packaging

in the past decade, tropical bamboo baskets of various sizes have been the most commonly used packaging for domestic fruits, while drum type bamboo baskets, wooden baskets, plastic boxes and corrugated cardboard boxes have been less used. Drum type bamboo basket is a typical packaging used in northern Thailand. It is often used to pack longan and litchi, and some specific fruits, such as mangosteen, rambutan, mango, etc., are packed in wooden baskets. The recyclable plastic boxes with wire stacking devices are mainly used to transport oranges from orchards to wholesalers, while corrugated cardboard boxes are used to pack high-value fruits such as lychees

at present, the selection of transportation packaging boxes has changed. At present, the main transportation packaging adopts corrugated cardboard boxes with more protective and charming appearance and reusable plastic containers, while the use of bamboo baskets and wooden baskets is greatly reduced, mainly because of the lack of raw materials, high prices, rough appearance and not too strong

the most common types of corrugated cardboard boxes are RSC and fths. Usually, the weight of domestic fruits packed in corrugated cardboard boxes is between 10 and 15 kg. Now, this kind of box is used for the packaging of most kinds of fruits, especially high-value fruits such as litchi, mangosteen and longan

most domestic plastic containers can be recycled. The top of these containers is open, rectangular and irregular quadrilateral, with a device made of iron wire for easy stacking. The normal packaging capacity is about 20 ~ 25 kg. Certain kinds of fruits for domestic sale, such as longan and litchi, also use the same beneficial plastic boxes as those used for export

the use of bamboo baskets and wooden baskets is limited to some low value and durable

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