The hottest international leap forward of China's

2022-08-26
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The international "great leap forward" of China's high-speed rail [from the initial great efforts to introduce advanced technology from various countries to the international great leap forward action of the global export of high-speed rail technology, the wonderful turn of China's high-speed rail has attracted global attention]

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the leapfrog development of China's high-speed rail has changed the impression of made in China

over the past few years, China's rail transit equipment manufacturing enterprises have achieved two major changes in the international market: first, they have achieved the transformation of export products from parts to complete vehicles, and then from general products to high-end products. CSR and CNR alone won US $2.3 billion contracts overseas last year, of which high-end products such as EMUs and urban rail transit accounted for more than 70% of the total contract value. The gold content of overseas orders of China's high-speed rail has greatly increased. Second, the transformation of export regions from developing countries to developed countries has been realized. At first, China's high-speed rail enterprises' exports were mainly concentrated in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and other underdeveloped regions. At present, vehicle products have entered more than 40 countries and regions in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and Oceania, and gradually expanded to developed countries such as Australia and Singapore. Insiders exclaimed that China's high-speed rail enterprises that have launched global attacks have entered the era of the international great leap forward

unlike the export of cheap shoes, socks and toys, China's high-speed rail has won the recognition of its counterparts in many developed countries through its own technology export, and earned rich global profits, quietly changing China's position in the global industrial chain. The intangible assets of technology intensive industries such as China's high-speed rail are becoming stronger and stronger. The beneficiaries are not only China's high-speed rail industry itself, but also the whole made in China

evolution history of high-speed rail technology: from input to output

the evolution history of China's high-speed rail industry is a history of technology introduction, digestion, absorption, localization, re innovation, and finally global output

speaking of the introduction of technology at the beginning of the construction of high-speed rail, Wang Songwen, vice president of CSR [5.32 0.00% group and general manager of the passenger car business department, who participated in the introduction of foreign advanced technology by the Ministry of Railways in 2004, recalled the scene at that time and was still excited in his words. According to the policy at that time, when foreign enterprises enter the Chinese railway market, they must form a consortium with Chinese enterprises, and the negotiations between Chinese enterprises and foreign parties should also be coordinated and organized by the Ministry of railways

to this end, the State Council has specially set up a technical vehicle professional committee, and the Ministry of Railways has also set up a joint office for EMU projects. In October, 2004, the first international bidding project was completed by means of international bidding. After that, under the unified coordination of the Ministry of railways, the domestic key locomotive manufacturing enterprises received advanced technologies from all over the world: the technology of French Alstom was transferred to Changchun Railway Passenger Car Co., Ltd; Kawasaki heavy of Japan gave CSR its cutting-edge technology of painting red markers; The technology of Bombardier in Canada corresponds to BSP in Qingdao; The technology of German Siemens is transferred to Tangshan Locomotive and rolling stock factory, etc "In fact, China is not short of original technology in terms of new materials. The purpose of introducing many foreign enterprises is to avoid the situation of one dominant company in the future.

the technology transfer of the foreign party must pass the localization assessment before the money can be paid. Wangsongwen believes that the second key to the success of the introduction of high-speed rail technology is the binding of technology transfer and market procurement. The mastery of technology is not in the static design stage, but in actual operation Experience speed level problems must be transformed into actual operations, and localization is only limited in time

after the introduction of advanced technologies from all over the world, the rapid development of China's high-speed railway multiple units has greatly exceeded the expectations of the parties. Since the opening of Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, only a few countries in the world, such as Japan, France and Germany, have reached the operating speed of 200 kilometers per hour. In the second half of 2003, CSR group chose Shinkansen as the platform. On the basis of the speed increase of the existing domestic lines at that time, after the introduction and transformation, the speed directly reached 250 kilometers per hour

in fact, although the preset speed of the Beijing Tianjin Intercity, which began construction in 2005 and officially operated in 2007, is 350 kilometers per hour, the maximum speed of 350 kilometers per hour is only 10 minutes, and the average speed of the whole journey is 260 kilometers per hour. After the official operation of Wuhan Guangzhou passenger dedicated line, the operating speed of multiple units will be maintained at more than 350 kilometers per hour for no less than 1 hour, and the average speed of the whole city will be more than 341 kilometers per hour. On thousands of kilometers of high-speed railway lines, EMUs operate at such a fast speed for a long time, which is unprecedented in the history of high-speed rail in the world. At the same time, high-speed rail lines across several provinces and cities in China are built in a wide range of complex and diverse natural environments, which enables Chinese enterprises to independently master the operation status of high-speed rail under various environmental conditions, especially the operation data and technical capacity at the speed of 350 kilometers per hour or even faster. At the speed of 350 kilometers per hour, there is no formal operation experience abroad

looking back at this period of history, it can be said that it is the inclusiveness of advanced technologies of various countries in the technology introduction stage that enables Chinese high-speed rail enterprises to have a strong ability of system integration, adaptation to modification, comprehensive solution and localization innovation. The software and hardware technology of China's high-speed rail track and offline technology has reached a localization rate of more than 95%, which is basically at the international leading or advanced level, and has become the most mature piece of China's high-speed rail technology. In terms of EMUs, the localization rate can also reach more than 85%

due to the certification of technical standards, Chinese high-speed rail enterprises have not yet entered the Russian and North American markets, mainly EMU accessories. In Saudi Arabia, the problem we encounter is the problem of different technical standards. The staff of CSR told "state owned enterprises"

four or five years ago, Saudi Arabia had contact with several major European companies, which had set a set of high-speed rail technical standards at that time. When Chinese enterprises enter the Saudi market, they will naturally encounter resistance when implementing Chinese technical standards. Fortunately, the two standard systems are not completely incompatible, that is, there are some differences in structure, size and so on. At this time, the place that reflects the technological capabilities of enterprises is not only a standard, but also depends on its compatibility and integration capabilities

China's high-speed rail is good at integrated innovation, which is highly valued by countries that are relatively backward in the development of high-speed rail but are committed to introducing foreign technology and combining local existing technology and equipment. Russia, for example, already has high-speed railways with speeds of 200 km/h and 250 km/h, but recently it has also been in contact with the Ministry of Railways of China to introduce Chinese technology and lines into the country

the United States, which has always considered itself advanced, is also inferior to China's advanced high-speed rail technology. When Obama visited China earlier, he admitted that the high-speed rail technology of the United States is 10 years behind that of China. After his visit to China, China and the United States set up a working group to emphasize the need to strengthen cooperation in high-speed rail construction between the two countries. It is said that California will build high-speed rail, and Obama has stated that he needs the participation of Chinese technology

global attack: from students to rivals

in order to make made in China an internationally renowned brand, Chinese railway equipment manufacturing enterprises have begun a series of strategic adjustments facing the international market, established offices in the Americas, Oceania, India, Africa, Asia and other places, and established cooperation with foreign research institutions and multinational enterprises, Both carry out extensive cooperation with the main goal of jointly manufacturing world-class railway equipment products, and jointly explore the international market. For example, CSR group has cooperated with Michigan State University to establish a power electronics research center, and has signed strategic framework agreements with well-known enterprises such as General Electric of the United States and Ito of Japan to form strategic partners. In 2010, CSR group and Japan Railway Corporation jointly competed for an US $8billion local business. At the same time, teachers from Chinese enterprises such as ALSTOM, Siemens and Bombardier participated in the project bidding

in fact, from the first international bidding of China's high-speed railway in 2004 to the signing of a memorandum of cooperation on high-speed railway projects with Russia and the United States in 2009, China's high-speed railway has completed a leap forward turn from students to competitors or partners

compared with these teachers, what are the advantages of Chinese high-speed rail enterprises in participating in global competition

it is impossible to win foreign high-speed rail projects at once. Only by doing domestic projects well and achieving good results can foreign markets believe in the technology and ability of China's high-speed rail. Wang Songwen said

although the high-speed railway in Japan and Europe has been developed for decades, its market share is limited, while the passenger dedicated line of China's high-speed railway will reach 16000 kilometers, far more than other markets. When competing for projects in foreign markets, the performance of the domestic market will directly affect the judgment of foreign decision makers, and urge them to try to adopt Chinese systems and standards to avoid the restrictions of technical barriers

the United States is the largest market outside China, and it can also carry out 3-point zigzag test, 4-point zigzag test, sheet metal tensile test, thick plate tensile test, strengthened steel bar tensile test, chain tensile test, fastener test, connecting rod test, change fatigue test, bending torsion composite fatigue test, interactive zigzag fatigue test, CT test, CCT test Gear fatigue test and other markets that Chinese enterprises are most interested in at present. At present, the Ministry of Railways also has a coordination group for the U.S. high-speed rail project. At present, CSR is participating in the bidding for the U.S. EMU project. It also wants to establish a joint venture with general electric company to give full play to the advantages of Chinese enterprises, and finally meet the localization rate standard of more than 60% required by the U.S. government. The EMU part of the project is currently presided over by CSR Qingdao Sifang. Let's do this project, mainly considering that we have this piece of intellectual property rights, which will not be limited by the original technology transferor, and will not cause intellectual property disputes. A staff member of CSR group said

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